TAEDES412 – 2. Design a plan for vocational training

TAEDES412 – 2. Design a plan for vocational training


Designing a plan for vocational training is a crucial process that involves various considerations to ensure effective and successful learning outcomes. The design phase lays the foundation for a well-structured and engaging training program that addresses the specific needs of learners and aligns with industry requirements.

Designing a training plan involves identifying objectives and outcomes, assessing target learners, determining the delivery mode, developing relevant learning materials and activities, incorporating assessment and feedback mechanisms, considering industry relevance, planning resources and support, and engaging in continuous improvement. 

A well-designed plan ensures that learners’ needs are met, industry requirements are addressed, and effective learning outcomes are achieved.

2.1 Access and interpret nationally recognised training products and identify training and assessment requirements

Accessing and interpreting nationally recognised training products in Australia involves visiting the training.gov.au website, which provides a comprehensive list of endorsed training packages, qualifications, and units of competency. It is important to accurately interpret the content by reviewing the descriptions, unit requirements, and assessment guidelines to understand the desired learning outcomes and assessment criteria. Identifying the training and assessment requirements requires analysing the knowledge and skills outlined in the training products, considering delivery and assessment strategies, and addressing any industry or regulatory requirements.

Staying updated on changes to training packages is crucial to ensure compliance and deliver high-quality training that aligns with national standards. By following this process, Trainers and Assessors contribute to the ongoing improvement and professionalism of the VET industry.

2.1.1 Access and interpret nationally recognised training products

Using nationally recognised training products is an effective way to meet vocational training needs. These training products have been developed by industry experts and meet national standards for quality and relevance. They cover a range of industries and skills and are regularly updated to reflect changes in industry practices and requirements.

Accessing and interpreting nationally recognised training products and identifying training and assessment requirements involves understanding the components and purpose of these products, as well as the process of accessing and interpreting them. 

Nationally recognised training products refer to the formal qualifications, units of competency, and skill sets that have been endorsed by a recognised training organisation in a particular country. These products define the skills, knowledge, and performance criteria required to achieve a specific qualification or competency standard.

Why it is important to access and interpret these products

Accessing and interpreting nationally recognised training products is essential for various stakeholders involved in the education and training sector, including training providers, assessors, learners, and industry representatives. The key reasons for doing so are:


·Training providers need to ensure they deliver training and assessment in line with the requirements set by regulatory bodies or industry standards.

•Quality assurance:

·Accessing and understanding training products helps maintain the quality and consistency of training delivery and assessment across different providers.

•Curriculum development:

·Training organisations rely on these products to design and develop training programs that align with industry needs and requirements.

•Recognition of prior learning (RPL):

·Assessors use training products to assess the skills and knowledge of individuals seeking recognition for their prior learning or experience.

How to access and interpret nationally recognised training products:

Accessing and interpreting nationally recognised training products requires familiarity with the relevant regulatory framework and guidelines. It is important to keep up to date with any changes or updates to these products, as they are periodically reviewed and revised by the regulatory authorities.

To access and interpret nationally recognised training products in Australia, follow these steps:

•Identify the Regulatory Authority:

·In Australia, the regulatory authority for vocational education and training (VET) is the Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA). Visit ASQA’s website to access the relevant resources.

•Access the Training.gov.au Website:

·Training.gov.au is the official national register of VET in Australia. It provides a comprehensive database of nationally recognised training products. Go to the Training.gov.au website (www.training.gov.au) to access the database.

•Search for Training Products:

Use the search function on Training.gov.au to find the specific training product of interest. It is possible to search by qualification name, unit code, or keywords related to the industry or occupation.

•View Training Product Details:

·Click on the search result to view the details of the training product. This includes the qualification or unit of competency descriptor, performance criteria, required knowledge and skills, assessment guidelines, and other related information.

•Interpret the Requirements:

·Analyse the information provided in the training product details to understand the learning outcomes, knowledge and skill requirements, performance criteria, and assessment methods. Pay attention to any specific guidelines or industry context mentioned.

•Consider Training Pathways:

·Many qualifications have different pathways or specialisations. Explore the related units of competency and elective choices to understand the different pathways available within a qualification.

•Review Assessment Requirements:

·Examine the assessment requirements specified in the training product documentation. This includes the assessment methods, tools, and evidence required to demonstrate competence. Consider the principles of assessment, such as validity, reliability, fairness, and flexibility.

The interpretation of training products should be done in conjunction with industry consultation, expert advice, and adherence to the principles and guidelines outlined by ASQA. Regularly review the Training.gov.au website for any changes or updates to training products.

2.1.2 Legislative and vocational education and training (VET) regulatory requirements relating to designing and developing plans for vocational training (KE1)

To effectively use nationally recognised training products to meet vocational training needs, it is crucial to understand the regulatory requirements governing the vocational education and training (VET) sector.

These regulatory requirements ensure the quality and consistency of vocational education and training across Australia. 

Australian Industry and Skills Committee AISC

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Source: https://www.aisc.net.au/

In Australia, AISC stands for the Australian Industry and Skills Committee. It is a national body that advises the government on industry skills needs and qualifications development.

The purpose of the AISC in Australia is to ensure that the vocational education and training (VET) system meets the needs of employers and industry. It does this by providing advice to the Australian government on the development of training packages and qualifications that reflect the skills and knowledge required by industry.

The AISC oversees the development of nationally recognised training packages that cover a range of industries and occupations. These packages provide the framework for the delivery of VET in Australia and set out the standards for training and assessment. They are developed through a process of industry consultation and are reviewed regularly to ensure they remain up-to-date and relevant to the needs of industry.

The AISC also works with industry to identify emerging skills needs and to develop strategies to address these needs. It promotes the use of innovative training methods and technologies to improve the quality and effectiveness of VET delivery. Additionally, it advises the government on the allocation of funding for VET programs and initiatives.

Recent developments

As a part of its industry engagement reforms, the Australian Government has announced the establishment of an independent Training Package Assurance function within the Department of Employment and Workplace Relations from 1st January 2023. The primary objective of this initiative is to ensure that training products adhere to national standards, which will drive ongoing enhancements in training product development and guarantee the delivery of high – quality training products to users of the VET system.

Overall, the purpose of AISC in Australia is to ensure that the VET system meets the needs of employers and industry by providing advice on the development of training packages and qualifications, identifying emerging skills needs, promoting innovative training methods, and advising on the allocation of funding for VET programs and initiatives.

Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA)

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Source: https://www.asqa.gov.au/

The Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA) is the national regulator for the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia. Its primary purpose is to ensure that the VET system delivers high-quality training that meets the needs of industry and employers, and that it is following national standards and legislation.

ASQA is responsible for the registration and accreditation of VET providers and courses, the investigation of complaints and concerns, and the monitoring of compliance with regulatory standards. It collaborates with providers to help them meet the standards and improve the quality of their training and assessment practices.

The purpose of ASQA is to provide assurance to the Australian public that the VET system is delivering high-quality training that meets the needs of industry and employers. 

Meeting the requirements of nationally recognised training products (KE1.1)

The National Register of VET provides detailed information about each training product, including the packaging rules, entry requirements, and assessment requirements. This information is essential for Trainers and Assessors and organisations involved in the development, delivery, and assessment of VET programs.

When developing training plans, meeting the requirements of nationally recognised training products is crucial. It ensures that the training programs align with industry standards provide relevant and up-to-date skills and knowledge, and meet the needs of learners and employers. 

By adhering to these requirements, training providers can ensure that their programs are of high quality, relevant to industry needs, and provide learners with the necessary skills and knowledge for their chosen field.

When developing training plans, it is essential to carefully analyse the specific qualifications, units of competency, and skill sets outlined in the nationally recognised training products. This involves thoroughly understanding the learning outcomes, performance criteria, required knowledge and skills, and assessment guidelines specified within these products.

By meeting these requirements, training providers can design comprehensive and structured training plans that cover all the necessary elements for achieving competence in a particular field. This includes selecting appropriate learning resources, developing engaging learning activities, and designing valid and reliable assessment methods that align with the standards set by the training products.

Meeting the requirements of nationally recognised training products also facilitates the process of recognition of prior learning (RPL). By aligning the training plans with the specified competencies, training providers can effectively assess and recognise the skills and knowledge learners have acquired through prior learning or work experience.

Entry requirements of qualifications

Every qualification has its entry requirements, which are based on the level of knowledge and skills required for the learner to complete the course successfully. Analysing the entry requirements is essential in ensuring that learners meet the necessary qualifications before enrolling in a particular course.

Entry requirements can vary significantly between qualifications and can include both academic and non-academic criteria.

Academic entry requirements can include formal qualifications such as a secondary school certificate or a bachelor’s degree. In some cases, specific subjects or grades are for entry into certain qualifications.

Non-academic entry requirements can include industry experience, language proficiency, and physical capabilities. For example, some qualifications in the trades may require a certain level of physical fitness or the ability to lift heavy objects.

It is important to ensure that learners meet the entry requirements before commencing a qualification. This helps to ensure that learners have the necessary foundation to succeed in their studies and achieve the desired learning outcomes.

Here is an example of entry requirements for a Certificate IV in Accounting qualification:

There are no specific entry requirements for this qualification.

However, it is recommended that Trainers and Assessors have some prior knowledge or experience in accounting or bookkeeping before enrolling in this course.

It is also important that Trainers and Assessors have basic computer skills and proficiency in using Microsoft Excel and other accounting software programs.

For example, a potential learner who wishes to enrol in this Certificate IV in Accounting qualification may have completed a Certificate III in Accounting or have relevant work experience in accounting or bookkeeping. Additionally, they may have completed some basic computer courses to develop their computer skills.

Packaging rules of qualifications and skill sets 

Packaging rules outline the combination of units of competency that make up a qualification. It is essential to analyse the packaging rules to ensure that the course structure aligns with the skills and knowledge needs of the learners.

Packaging rules of qualifications and skill sets are the guidelines set by the training package developers to specify the required units of competency or modules that must be completed to achieve a particular qualification or skill set. These rules outline the specific combinations of units that must be completed to obtain the qualification or skill set, as well as any elective units that may be chosen. The packaging rules also specify the level of the qualification or skill set, such as Certificate III, Certificate IV, or Diploma.


The Certificate III in Business Administration may have packaging rules that require completion of 13 units of competency, including:

Core units such as:

“Organise personal work priorities and development” 

“Develop keyboarding speed and accuracy” and 

“Design and produce business documents.” 

Elective units may include options such as:

“Maintain financial records,” 

“Deliver and monitor a service to customers” or 

“Develop spreadsheets.”

It is important to understand the packaging rules when selecting units of competency to ensure that the chosen units meet the requirements for the desired qualification or skill set. This helps to ensure that learners have the necessary knowledge and skills to perform job tasks in their chosen industry.

Prerequisite unit requirements for units of competency 

Prerequisite units of competency are units that must be completed before enrolling in a specific unit. Analysing the prerequisite units is crucial in ensuring that learners have the necessary foundational knowledge required to complete the unit successfully.

These prerequisite requirements are usually designed to ensure that learners have the necessary foundational knowledge and skills required to successfully complete the unit.


To undertake the unit of competency “SITHFAB002 Provide responsible service of alcohol,” the prerequisite unit “SITHFAB001 Provide responsible service of alcohol” must be completed first. This ensures that learners have already gained the foundational knowledge and skills required for responsible service of alcohol before progressing to the next level of training.

It is essential to check and understand the prerequisite unit requirements before enrolling in or delivering a training program to ensure that learners have the required knowledge and skills to undertake the unit of competency successfully.

Foundation skill demands of units of competency 

Foundation skills are crucial in ensuring that learners can apply the acquired knowledge and skills in real-life situations. Analysing the foundation skills required for the units of competency is essential in ensuring that learners have the necessary skills to apply the knowledge gained.

Foundation skills are defined as “the combination of language, literacy, numeracy, and employability skills necessary for Trainers and Assessors to participate effectively in the workforce and in the community.” Therefore, when analysing and using nationally recognised training products, it is important to consider the foundation skills required for each unit of competency.


The unit of competency “SITHFAB002 Provide responsible service of alcohol” from the Hospitality Training Package requires foundation skills in communication, numeracy, and digital literacy. Learners are required to communicate clearly and respectfully with customers, calculate standard drinks and blood alcohol levels, and use technology to access information and record sales.

Assessing the foundation skill demands of a unit of competency can assist in identifying any additional support or training needed to ensure learners have the necessary skills to effectively perform in the workplace. It can also inform the design of learning materials and assessments to incorporate opportunities for learners to develop and apply foundation skills.

Assessment requirements relating to units of competency

Assessment requirements outline the expected knowledge and skills that a learner should possess upon completion of a unit. Analysing the assessment requirements is crucial in ensuring that learners acquire the required knowledge and skills to complete the unit successfully

Assessment requirements may include practical demonstrations, written or oral exams, projects, or workplace assessments. For example, a unit of competency may require a learner to demonstrate their ability to safely operate a forklift through a practical demonstration in a simulated workplace environment. The assessment requirements will specify the performance criteria that the learner must meet to be deemed competent in that unit.


An example of assessment requirements for a unit of competency may include:
Unit code and title: SITHFAB002 Provide responsible service of alcohol.

Assessment requirements:

Knowledge assessment: Written exam with 30 multiple-choice questions covering the legal requirements of providing responsible service of alcohol (pass mark 80%)

Practical assessment: Simulation of serving alcohol in a licensed venue with a focus on identifying and managing customers displaying signs of intoxication, and refusal of service where appropriate (assessed by an industry expert using a skills checklist)

Workplace assessment: Observation of the learner providing responsible service of alcohol in a workplace setting and feedback provided by supervisor (assessed by the trainer and supervisor using a skills checklist)

Clustering units of competency for delivery and assessment

Clustering units of competency involves grouping related units of competency for delivery and assessment purposes. Analysing and clustering units of competency ensure that learners acquire relevant knowledge and skills and that the course structure aligns with their skill and knowledge needs.

Clustering can provide a more holistic and efficient approach to training by allowing learners to develop a range of skills and knowledge that are relevant to a particular industry or job role. For example, a cluster of units related to business administration may include units on communication skills, project management, and recordkeeping. The benefit of clustering these units is that learners can gain a broader range of skills and knowledge in the field of business administration, which can be applied in a variety of job roles.

When clustering units of competency, it is important to ensure that the units are related and build on each other in a logical sequence. It is also important to ensure that the units selected are suitable for the target learner group and their specific needs. Clustering should be designed with a clear purpose in mind, such as meeting industry needs or addressing specific learner requirements.


An example of clustering units of competency for the Certificate IV in Leadership and Management may include units on effective communication, team leadership, and performance management. These units have been grouped together to ensure that learners develop the essential skills and knowledge required for effective leadership and management in the workplace. The cluster of units may also include elective units that are relevant to specific industries or job roles, such as financial management for managers in the finance industry.

Amount of training to provide to each learner and learner group (KE1.2)

Determining the appropriate amount of training to provide to each learner and learner group is a critical aspect of ensuring effective learning outcomes. 

NRT products include information on the volume of learning, which specifies the expected duration or amount of training required to achieve the qualification or unit. 

The AQF provides a national framework for all qualifications in Australia, including VET. It sets out the levels of qualifications and the associated volume of learning for each level. The volume of learning is expressed in terms of nominal hours, which represent the notional duration for an average learner to achieve competency.

Recognising that each learner possesses unique abilities, learning styles, and prior knowledge, educators strive to deliver tailored training experiences to optimise their development.

By tailoring the amount of training, trainers can strike a balance between challenging learners and providing them with the necessary support to acquire new knowledge and skills.

To determine the appropriate amount of training, educators can:

  • Conduct comprehensive assessments, such as diagnostic tests, to gauge learners’ proficiency levels and identify areas that require further attention. These assessments enable educators to assess the learners’ existing knowledge and skill gaps, helping them develop targeted training plans.
  • Use formative assessments throughout the training process to monitor learners’ progress. Regular check-ins and feedback sessions enable educators to assess how learners are responding to the training and adjust the amount of content accordingly. This iterative approach ensures that learners receive an optimal amount of training, avoiding overwhelming or underwhelming them.
  • Observe collaboration and group  and often foster a collaborative learning environment, encouraging learners to work together, share ideas, and support each other’s growth. By observing the group dynamics, educators can identify variations in learning needs within the group and adapt the training accordingly. This approach recognises that groups can benefit from both collective learning experiences and individualized attention.

In summary, the approach to determining the amount of training for each learner and learner group is centered around personalised learning, comprehensive assessments, formative feedback, and collaborative dynamics. By tailoring training to individual needs and group dynamics, educators in Australia strive to provide an optimal learning experience that facilitates the growth and development of each learner.

Tailoring the plans to target learner group (KE1.3)

In regard to tailoring plans to target learner groups, educators must understand the importance of customisation and inclusivity and recognise that learners within a group can have diverse needs, backgrounds, and abilities, necessitating a thoughtful and flexible approach to training.

Trainers should prioritise the creation of inclusive learning environments where all learners feel valued and supported. To achieve this, they must consider factors such as cultural backgrounds, learning styles, and individual strengths when tailoring plans for learner groups. By acknowledging and incorporating these unique aspects, educators can ensure that the training content resonates with the learners and enhances their overall learning experience.

To design a training program that effectively meets the needs of the learners, it is essential to have a clear understanding of the target group. Here are the key considerations when determining the target group for training:

Understanding the characteristics and demographics of the learners

Gain insights into the characteristics and demographics of the learners who will participate in the training. Consider factors such as age, educational background, work experience, cultural diversity, and language proficiency. This understanding helps in tailoring the training content, delivery methods, and learning materials to suit the specific needs and preferences of the learners.

Assessing the prior knowledge and skill levels of the target group

Evaluate the existing knowledge and skill levels of the learners in relation to the training topic. This assessment helps identify any gaps or areas of strength that should be taken into account during the training design. By understanding the learners’ starting point, trainers can appropriately scaffold the training content and activities to ensure optimal learning outcomes.

Identifying specific needs and learning preferences of the learners

Engage with the learners or their representatives to identify their specific needs, goals, and expectations from the training program. Consider conducting surveys, interviews, or focus group discussions to gather valuable insights. Additionally, take into account the learning preferences of the target group, such as preferred learning styles, formats, and delivery methods. This information enables trainers to customise the training approach and make it more engaging and relevant for the learners.

By understanding the characteristics and demographics of the learners, assessing their prior knowledge and skill levels, and identifying their specific needs and learning preferences, trainers can design and deliver training programs that cater to the unique requirements of the target group. This learner-centred approach enhances engagement, motivation, and the overall effectiveness of the training.

2.1.3 Purpose and use of National Register of VET (Training.gov.au, or its successor), including to identify changes to nationally recognised training products (KE3)

National Register of VET, also known as Training.gov.au (TGA). TGA is the official national register of VET qualifications, courses, units of competency, and registered training organisations.

Source: www.training.gov.au

It is a database of vocational education and training providers and courses that have been registered and approved by the Australian government. Its purpose is to provide a central source of information about VET providers and courses that have met the required quality and compliance standards.

The register includes information on:

Registered Training Organisations (RTOs)
•The register lists all RTOs that are registered with ASQA and have met the required quality and compliance standards.
Accredited courses
•The register includes a list of all VET courses that have been accredited by ASQA and meet the required quality and compliance standards.
Training packages
•The register also includes information on the nationally endorsed training packages, which provide a framework for the delivery of VET in Australia.

The purpose of the National Register of VET is to ensure consistency and quality in the delivery of VET across Australia, by providing a centralised repository of information that can be accessed by all stakeholders.

The National Register of VET is used for a variety of purposes, including:

Identifying the requirements of
nationally recognised training products
Maintaining version control
Identifying changes to nationally
recognised training products
Supporting quality assurance

Identifying changes to nationally recognised training products is essential to ensure that they remain current, accurate, and reflective of industry needs. Changes may be driven by technological advancements, regulatory updates, emerging trends, or feedback from industry stakeholders. Regular review and updating of training products help maintain their relevance and effectiveness.

Overall, the purpose of the National Register of VET is to support the delivery of high-quality and compliant VET in Australia by providing a central source of information for students, employers, and other stakeholders in the sector.

2.2 Analyse a unit of competency or skill set, and identify learning components to scaffold

When analysing a unit of competency or skill set, educators focus on identifying the key learning components that will support learners’ understanding and mastery of the subject matter. They break down the unit into manageable parts and design a scaffolded learning plan that introduces concepts gradually and builds upon prior knowledge.

Educators utilise various instructional strategies, resources, and activities to support learners, such as visual aids, additional materials, and formative assessments. Collaboration and peer learning are encouraged to foster engagement and deeper understanding. Continuous reflection and feedback are provided to guide learners’ development and encourage ownership of their learning journey. By incorporating these approaches, educators ensure that learners receive targeted support and achieve the desired learning outcomes.

2.2.1 Key components of training and assessment strategies and how to use them when designing and developing plans for vocational training (KE6)

When designing and developing plans for vocational training, it is crucial to consider the key components of training and assessment strategies. These components serve as guiding principles to ensure that the training programs are effective, comprehensive, and aligned with industry standards. By understanding and utilising these components, educators can create robust training plans that meet the needs of vocational learners.

Conducting a thorough analysis of the learners’ training needs is the first step in designing a successful training plan

•Training Needs Analysis
•This involves assessing the learners’ existing knowledge, skills, and competencies, as well as identifying any skill gaps or areas for improvement. By understanding the specific needs of the learners, educators can tailor the training program accordingly.

Clearly defining the learning outcomes is essential for training plans.

Clear Learning Outcomes
•Learning outcomes specify what learners should be able to do or demonstrate upon completion of the training. They should be measurable, specific, and aligned with industry requirements. Well-defined learning outcomes provide a clear focus for the training and assessment activities.

Determining the appropriate training delivery methods is crucial for engaging vocational learners

Training Delivery Methods
•This may include a combination of classroom instruction, practical hands-on activities, work placements, online learning modules, and industry simulations. The chosen methods should facilitate active learning, encourage participation, and allow learners to apply their knowledge and skills in real-world contexts.

Selecting appropriate assessment methods is essential to measure learners’ understanding and competency attainment.

Assessment Methods
Vocational training often involves practical assessments, such as simulations, demonstrations, and workplace observations, in addition to written or online assessments. Assessment methods should align with the learning outcomes, be valid and reliable, and provide learners with opportunities to showcase their acquired skills.

Recognising prior learning is an important component of training plans.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)
•RPL acknowledges the skills and knowledge that learners have gained through previous education, work experience, or informal learning. By offering RPL opportunities, educators can provide pathways for learners to gain recognition for their existing competencies, thereby reducing duplication and enhancing the efficiency of the training program.

Providing ongoing support and feedback is vital for vocational learners’ growth and development.

Ongoing Support and Feedback
•Educators should establish mechanisms for regular communication, such as mentorship, coaching, and feedback sessions. These interactions allow learners to seek clarification, receive guidance, and address any challenges they may encounter during the training process.

Continuous improvement is an integral part of training plans.

Continuous Improvement
•Educators should regularly evaluate the effectiveness of the training program, gather feedback from learners and industry stakeholders, and make necessary adjustments to enhance the learning experience. This involves monitoring the achievement of learning outcomes, assessing the relevance of content, and incorporating industry updates and emerging trends

By incorporating these key components into the design and development of training plans, educators can create comprehensive and effective programs that meet industry needs, provide learners with relevant skills, and enable them to succeed in their chosen vocational pathways.

2.2.2 Relationship between training and assessment, and implications for designing and developing plans for vocational training (KE9)

The relationship between training and assessment in vocational training is vital, and it has significant implications for designing and developing effective training plans. Understanding this relationship is crucial for educators when creating comprehensive vocational training programs that align with industry standards and meet learners’ needs.

Training and assessment are interconnected and mutually reinforcing components of vocational education. The training component focuses on equipping learners with the necessary knowledge, skills, and competencies required in their chosen vocational field. It involves instructional methods, practical activities, and opportunities for learners to acquire and practice relevant skills.

Assessment, on the other hand, evaluates learners’ understanding, competency attainment, and application of acquired knowledge and skills. It provides a means to measure learners’ progress and ensure that they have achieved the required standards and competencies set by the industry. Assessment methods can include practical demonstrations, observations, written exams, simulations, or workplace assessments.

When designing and developing plans for vocational training, the relationship between training and assessment must be carefully considered. Here are some implications for incorporating this relationship into the training plan:

  • The training plan should align closely with the desired learning outcomes and assessment criteria.
Alignment of Learning Outcomes
•Clear and measurable learning outcomes guide the training process, while the assessment criteria ensure that learners are assessed on the same knowledge and skills they have been trained for. This alignment ensures that the training activities directly contribute to the desired outcomes and assessment requirements.

Training plans should include authentic assessments that mirror real-world situations and tasks that learners will encounter in their vocational field.

Authentic Assessment
•This allows learners to demonstrate their competence and readiness to perform job-related tasks. Authentic assessments provide meaningful feedback to learners and help bridge the gap between training and workplace expectations.

Incorporating formative assessments throughout the training process is essential.

Formative Assessment
•Formative assessments provide ongoing feedback to learners and inform instructional decisions. They help identify areas where learners may require additional support or clarification, allowing educators to adjust the training plan accordingly. Formative assessments also enable learners to monitor their progress and make improvements as they work towards achieving the required competencies.

The relationship between training and assessment emphasises the importance of continuous improvement in training plans.

Continuous Improvement
•Regular evaluation and feedback from both learners and industry stakeholders help identify areas for improvement in both training methods and assessment strategies. This feedback loop allows for adjustments to be made to the training plan, ensuring that it remains relevant, up-to-date, and responsive to the changing needs of the industry

By understanding and leveraging the relationship between training and assessment, training plans can be designed and developed to optimise learners’ learning experiences and prepare them for successful careers in their chosen vocational fields. Effective alignment, authentic assessments, formative assessments, and continuous improvement processes all contribute to the overall quality and relevance of vocational training programs.

2.2.3 Processes for interpreting nationally recognised units of competency to identify the standard of performance required (KE11)

Interpreting nationally recognised units of competency to identify the standard of performance required involves a systematic process that ensures a clear understanding of the expected performance outcomes. By following established procedures, educators and assessors can accurately assess learners’ competence against the national standards.

Following are the key processes involved in interpreting nationally recognised units of competency:

Read the Unit of Competency

Begin by thoroughly reading the specific unit of competency from the national training package or qualification framework. Become familiar with the content, performance criteria, and associated elements. Pay attention to the language and terminology used to describe the required performance.

Analyse Performance Criteria

Break down the performance criteria within the unit of competency. Each performance criterion describes a specific task or skill that learners are expected to demonstrate. Analyse these criteria to identify the essential elements and actions required for successful performance. Consider the level of complexity and depth of knowledge needed.

Consult Training Package Documentation

Refer to the training package documentation, which provides additional guidance and contextual information for interpreting the unit of competency. This may include the companion volume, assessment guidelines, or industry-specific resources. These documents help clarify the intent of the unit and provide insights into industry expectations.

Consider Contextual Factors

Consider the specific industry or vocational context in which the unit of competency applies. Different industries may have specific requirements or variations in performance expectations. Take into account any relevant industry regulations, standards, or best practices that influence the standard of performance required.

Seek Industry Expertise

Engage with industry professionals, employers, or subject matter experts to gain insights into the expected performance standards. Collaborating with industry stakeholders helps ensure that the interpretation aligns with industry needs and current practices. Their expertise and input provide valuable perspectives and enhance the accuracy of the interpretation process.

Benchmark Against Exemplars

Use exemplars or samples of high-quality performance to benchmark against the unit of competency. Exemplars serve as reference points for understanding the standard of performance required. They help identify the level of skill, knowledge, and application required to meet the performance criteria effectively.

Document the interpretation of the unit of competency, highlighting the key performance criteria, essential elements, and expected level of competence. This documentation serves as a reference point for trainers, assessors, and learners to understand the standard of performance required.

By following these processes, educators and assessors can accurately interpret nationally recognised units of competency and establish the standard of performance required for learners. This interpretation forms the basis for designing effective training programs and conducting valid assessments that align with national industry standards and ensure learners’ competence in their chosen vocational field.

Skill and knowledge requirements in the products, including requirements relating to foundation skills: language, literacy, numeracy, digital literacy and employability skills (KE11.1)

Skill and knowledge requirements in products encompass a range of competencies and capabilities that Trainers and Assessors need to possess to perform effectively in various industries. In addition to technical skills and knowledge, there are specific requirements related to foundation skills, including language, literacy, numeracy, digital literacy, and employability skills. These foundational skills are essential for Trainers and Assessors to succeed in the modern workforce. 

In Australia, there are two authorised foundation skill frameworks that are used to analyse the foundation skill demands of training products. These are The Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF) and Digital Literacy Skills Framework (DLSF).

Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF)

The ACSF is a national framework that provides a consistent way of describing and assessing foundation skills. It is used to identify the specific foundation skill demands of a particular training product and to determine the required level of skill for successful participation in that training. 

The Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF) provides a rich, detailed picture of real-life performance in the five core skills of:

•This skill refers to the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills, to develop new understandings, and to engage in ongoing learning throughout life. This includes skills such as reading, writing, numeracy, and digital literacy.
•This skill involves the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate a wide range of texts, including digital and print-based materials. It also includes the ability to use reading strategies such as scanning, skimming, and critical analysis.
•This skill refers to the ability to communicate effectively through writing, including the ability to write for a range of purposes and audiences and to use appropriate grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
Oral Communication
•This skill involves the ability to communicate effectively through speaking and listening, including the ability to participate in group discussions, deliver presentations, and engage in active listening.
•This skill refers to the ability to use mathematical concepts and reasoning to solve problems in real-life situations. This includes skills such as calculating, estimating, measuring, and interpreting numerical information

Recent Developments

In August 2020, all Australian governments agreed through the Heads of Agreement for Skills Reform to improve the VET sector. One of the agreed priorities is to provide stronger support for foundation skills and ensuring access for all Australians with low levels of language, literacy, numeracy, and digital literacy.

The National Foundation Skills Framework (Framework) 2022-2032 sets out a 10-year model for collective action by governments working with stakeholders to improve the foundation skills of Australian adults.

For more information, visit: https://www.dewr.gov.au/foundation-skills/resources/draft-national-foundation-skills-framework

Digital Literacy Skills Framework (DLSF)

The Digital Literacy Skills Framework provides a comprehensive and structured approach to developing digital literacy skills, which are essential for effective participation in the digital age. The framework outlines a range of skills that Trainers and Assessors need to be competent in, to use digital technologies effectively and to engage with digital content.

The Digital Literacy Skills Framework includes the following skills:

Information Literacy

Information Literacy
•The ability to access, evaluate and use information from digital sources
Digital Communication
•The ability to use digital technologies for communication and collaboration, including email, social media, video conferencing, and messaging platforms.
Digital Creation
•The ability to create digital content using a range of tools and media, such as audio, video, graphics, and animations.
Digital Safety and Security
•The ability to use digital technologies safely and securely, including knowledge of online privacy, cyberbullying, and cybercrime.
Digital Problem Solving
•The ability to identify and solve problems using digital tools and technologies
Digital Identity
•The ability to manage and protect one’s digital identity and reputation, including understanding online behaviour, online etiquette, and digital citizenship.

The purpose of these frameworks is to provide a consistent way of describing and assessing foundation skills across different contexts, such as education and training, employment, and community participation. They help to ensure that learners have the necessary foundation skills to participate effectively in the workforce and society.

When designing vocational training programs, it is essential to integrate these foundation skills requirements. Trainers and educators should embed opportunities for learners to develop and enhance their language, literacy, numeracy, digital literacy, and employability skills throughout the training process. This can be achieved by incorporating relevant activities, assessments, and resources that target these skills within the context of the industry or vocational field.

By addressing the skill and knowledge requirements, including the foundation skills, Trainers and Assessors undergoing vocational training are equipped with a well-rounded set of competencies that enable them to succeed in their chosen careers. These skills not only enhance their job performance but also contribute to their overall professional growth and adaptability in the dynamic and evolving world of work.

Dimensions of competency and how they guide training practices and planning (KE11.2)

The AQF’s learning outcomes describe the knowledge, skills, and application that learners are expected to achieve upon completion of the qualification.

Competency refers to a combination of knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviours that Trainers and Assessors possess and utilise to perform tasks effectively in a particular domain. Training practices aim to develop and enhance these competencies in Trainers and Assessors. There are several dimensions of competency that guide training practices. 

Here are some key dimensions:


Competency requires a solid understanding of relevant concepts, theories, principles, and procedures related to a specific field or task. Training programs focus on imparting the necessary knowledge through lectures, reading materials, case studies, and other learning resources.


Competency involves the practical application of knowledge. Skills are the ability to perform specific tasks or actions with proficiency. Training practices include hands-on exercises, simulations, role-playing, and practical experiences to develop and refine these skills.


Abilities are the innate or acquired talents and capacities that enable Trainers and Assessors to perform certain tasks more easily or effectively. Training programs may identify and leverage existing abilities or work on improving areas of weakness through targeted exercises and activities.


Competency is also reflected in the behaviors Trainers and Assessors exhibit in the workplace. These include communication skills, teamwork, adaptability, problem-solving, and professionalism. Training practices often incorporate role-modeling, group activities, feedback mechanisms, and real-life scenarios to foster desired behaviors


Attitudes encompass Trainers and Assessors’ beliefs, values, and mindset towards their work, colleagues, and the organisation. Competency development may involve cultivating positive attitudes such as a growth mindset, motivation, resilience, and a customer-centric approach. Training practices may include motivational talks, goal-setting exercises, and values-based discussions.

Contextual application

Competencies are not isolated but are influenced by the context in which they are applied. Training practices should take into account the specific requirements and challenges of the organisational or industry context. This could involve scenario-based training, industry-specific case studies, or on-the-job training.

Continous learning

Competency development is an ongoing process. Training practices should encourage a culture of continuous learning and skill enhancement. This can include access to relevant resources, self-directed learning opportunities, mentoring, coaching, and participation in workshops or conferences.

Overall, understanding the structure, levels, and overarching content of the AQF is essential for anyone involved in the development, delivery, and assessment of vocational education and training. It helps ensure that qualifications are consistent and relevant, and that learners have clear pathways to progress their education and careers.

To guide training practices effectively, it is essential to conduct a thorough competency analysis, which involves identifying the required competencies for specific roles or tasks, assessing the current competency levels of Trainers and Assessors, and determining the competency gaps. Based on this analysis, training programs can be designed and implemented to address these gaps and enhance overall competency within an organisation or field.

2.2.4 Contents of Companion Volume Implementation Guides relating to designing and developing plans for vocational training (KE12)

Companion Volume Implementation Guides (CVIGs) are one of the key support materials that provide detailed information on the units of competency and qualifications.

These guides help trainers and assessors understand the training products and the requirements for delivering and assessing the units of competency.

The CVIGs provide guidance on the assessment methods, evidence requirements, and performance criteria for each unit of competency, ensuring consistency in assessment across different training organisations.

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Other support materials for nationally recognised training products may include training and assessment strategies, learning and assessment resources, assessment tools and templates, and industry consultation reports. These materials are designed to support trainers and assessors in delivering high-quality training and assessments that meet industry standards and the needs of learners.

In summary, nationally recognised training products provide learners with high-quality training that meets industry standards and is relevant to their needs. The training products cover a range of knowledge, skills, and competencies required for a particular industry or job role. Support materials, such as CVIGs and other resources, play a critical role in the delivery of nationally recognised training products by providing guidance on assessment methods, evidence requirements, and performance criteria for each unit of competency.

2.3 Determine a training sequence for the delivery of skills and knowledge to support learner progression

Determining a training sequence for supporting learner progression involves carefully planning the order in which skills and knowledge are delivered. Trainers consider learning outcomes, prerequisite knowledge, developmental progression, contextual relevance, and assessment opportunities.

By employing a scaffolded approach and periodically reviewing the sequence, trainers ensure learners build a solid foundation and progress effectively. This systematic approach maximises learners’ potential for success in their vocational field.

2.3.1 Purposes and key content of plans for vocational training, including logically sequenced learning content (KE5)

Training plans serve multiple purposes, including skill development, knowledge acquisition, career preparation, and fostering a culture of lifelong learning. 

Key content elements within these plans include logically sequenced learning content, clear learning objectives, practical application opportunities, assessments and feedback, diverse learning resources, and support systems for learners. 

By incorporating these elements, training plans ensure that learners progress in a structured manner, acquire the required skills and knowledge, engage actively in their learning, and receive the necessary support to succeed in their chosen vocational fields.

Engages and progresses learners (KE5.1)

An effective training plan aims to engage learners actively in the learning process while ensuring their steady progression. The plan is designed to provide a variety of learning experiences that cater to different learning styles, ensuring learners remain motivated and invested in their vocational development. Additionally, the plan offers clear pathways for advancement, allowing learners to track their progress and set goals for continuous improvement.

Engaging learners

An effective training plan utilises interactive and participatory learning activities to engage learners actively. For example, instead of relying solely on traditional lectures, the plan incorporates group discussions where learners can share their perspectives and learn from each other. This fosters collaboration, critical thinking, and the exchange of ideas among learners.


In a vocational training program for culinary arts, learners may participate in group cooking sessions where they collaborate to prepare a meal together. This hands-on activity not only engages learners in a practical application of their culinary skills but also encourages teamwork and communication.

Progressing learners

The training plan ensures that learners progress steadily by offering clear pathways for advancement and continuous improvement. It provides structured learning experiences that build upon foundational concepts and gradually introduce more advanced topics.


In an IT training program, learners may start with basic programming concepts and gradually progress to more complex coding languages and frameworks. The plan may include projects of increasing complexity, challenging learners to apply their knowledge and skills to solve real-world programming problems. This progression allows learners to continuously expand their expertise and gain confidence in their abilities.

Tailoring to learning styles

A well-designed training plan acknowledges and accommodates different learning styles to ensure learner engagement. It incorporates a variety of instructional methods and resources to cater to diverse preferences and strengths.


In a graphic design training program, the plan may incorporate visual demonstrations, hands-on design projects, and interactive software simulations. This approach caters to learners who prefer visual and kinesthetic learning styles, ensuring that they actively participate in the training and stay engaged throughout.

Setting goals and tracking progress

An effective training plan sets clear learning objectives and provides mechanisms for learners to track their progress. It encourages learners to set personal goals, monitors their achievements, and provides feedback to guide their continuous development.


In a sales training program, learners may set goals for improving their negotiation skills or achieving specific sales targets. The plan includes regular assessments and feedback sessions to evaluate their performance, provide constructive guidance, and celebrate their progress. This approach motivates learners to strive for excellence and actively pursue their vocational growth.

By incorporating these strategies, an engaging and progressive training plan ensures that learners actively participate in their learning, acquire new skills and knowledge, and continue to advance towards their vocational goals.

Provides a safe and inclusive learning environment (KE5.2)

Creating a safe and inclusive learning environment is crucial for the overall success and well-being of learners. An effective training plan incorporates various strategies and practices to ensure that learners feel safe, respected and included throughout their learning journey.

Provides a Safe and Inclusive Learning Environment

The training plan prioritises the establishment of a safe and inclusive learning environment where learners can freely express themselves, share their perspectives, and engage in collaborative learning. It fosters an atmosphere of trust, respect, and empathy, promoting positive interactions among learners, trainers, and other participants.


In a healthcare training program, the plan may emphasise the importance of creating a safe and inclusive space where learners from diverse backgrounds can contribute their unique experiences and insights. Trainers can implement ground rules that ensure respectful communication, active listening, and the valuing of different viewpoints. This promotes an environment where all learners feel comfortable expressing themselves and learning from one another.

Promoting Diversity and Cultural Sensitivity

The training plan embraces diversity and cultural sensitivity, recognising the value of different perspectives and experiences. It celebrates the richness of cultural backgrounds, experiences, and identities among learners. The plan incorporates content and activities that promote cross-cultural understanding and respect.


In a hospitality training program, the plan may include modules that focus on cultural awareness and sensitivity. This could involve exploring various cuisines, traditions, and customs from different cultures. By doing so, the training plan not only provides learners with a broader understanding of diverse cultures but also prepares them to engage with a diverse range of customers in their future careers.

Encouraging Open Dialogue and Collaboration

The training plan fosters open dialogue and collaboration among learners. It creates opportunities for learners to engage in discussions, share their ideas, and collaborate on projects. This approach promotes a sense of belonging and encourages learners to actively participate and learn from one another.


In a team-building training program, the plan may include group activities that require learners to work together to solve problems or complete tasks. By promoting collaboration and open communication, the plan cultivates a sense of teamwork and cooperation, enabling learners to develop essential interpersonal skills necessary for their vocational success.

Mutual Respect and Support

The training plan emphasises the importance of mutual respect and support among learners, trainers, and other stakeholders. It encourages learners to support and uplift one another, fostering a positive and encouraging learning environment.


In a customer service training program, the plan may include activities that promote empathy and active listening skills. Learners are encouraged to practice respectful communication with their peers and trainers, actively listening to understand different perspectives and responding with empathy. This cultivates an atmosphere of support and understanding, where learners feel comfortable seeking help and collaborating with others.

By incorporating these strategies, a training plan creates a safe and inclusive learning environment that values diversity, promotes cultural sensitivity, encourages open dialogue and collaboration, and fosters mutual respect and support. This ensures that learners can fully engage in their vocational training, feel valued for their unique contributions, and develop the necessary skills and competencies to thrive in their chosen fields.

Covers required skills and knowledge (KE5.3)

Covering the required skills and knowledge is essential to prepare learners for their chosen vocational field. A well-designed training plan focuses on identifying and delivering the core competencies and industry-specific skills that learners need to acquire. It carefully sequences the learning content, ensuring a logical progression from foundational concepts to more advanced topics. 

Covers Required Skills and Knowledge

The training plan identifies the key skills and knowledge that learners need to succeed in their chosen vocational field. It begins by assessing the industry requirements and job market expectations to determine the essential competencies. The plan then aligns its content with these requirements to ensure learners are equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge.


In a digital marketing training program, the plan may identify key skills such as search engine optimisation (SEO), social media marketing, content creation, and data analytics as crucial for success in the field. The plan would then include modules dedicated to each of these skills, covering the relevant theories, strategies, and practical applications.

Sequencing the Learning Content

To facilitate effective learning, the training plan carefully sequences the learning content in a logical manner. It starts with foundational concepts and gradually progresses to more advanced topics. This sequential approach ensures learners have a solid understanding of the basics before moving on to complex skills and knowledge.


In an automotive technician training program, the plan would begin with modules covering basic automotive systems such as engines, brakes, and electrical systems. As learners gain proficiency in these areas, the plan would progress to more specialised topics like diagnostics, engine tuning, and hybrid vehicle technology. This sequential learning approach allows learners to build a strong foundation and gradually develop their expertise.

Comprehensive Coverage of Theory and Practice

A well-rounded training plan ensures comprehensive coverage of both theoretical knowledge and practical skills. It combines classroom instruction, demonstrations, and hands-on exercises to provide learners with a holistic understanding of their vocational domain. The plan emphasises the application of knowledge through practical exercises, simulations, or real-world projects.


In a healthcare training program for nursing assistants, the plan would cover theoretical topics such as anatomy, physiology, and patient care principles. It would then integrate practical components, such as hands-on training in patient hygiene, vital sign measurement, and basic nursing procedures. This comprehensive approach equips learners with the necessary theoretical knowledge and practical skills required for their roles.

Alignment with Industry Standards

A training plan ensures that the covered skills and knowledge align with industry standards and practices. It takes into account the latest trends, technological advancements, and industry regulations, enabling learners to meet the expectations and demands of the job market.


In a construction trades training program, the plan would incorporate the latest building codes, safety regulations, and sustainable construction practices. It would also include training on the use of modern construction tools and equipment. By aligning with industry standards, the plan prepares learners to work efficiently and safely in the construction industry.

By focusing on covering the required skills and knowledge, sequencing the learning content, providing comprehensive instruction, and aligning with industry standards, a training plan ensures that learners acquire the competencies and expertise needed to succeed in their chosen vocational field.

Use resources that support and engage learners (KE5.4)

In vocational training, using resources that support and engage learners is crucial for creating an effective and enriching learning experience. A well-designed training plan incorporates a variety of resources that cater to different learning preferences and enhance learner engagement. 

Uses Resources that Support and Engage Learners

The training plan should include a range of resources that are carefully selected to support and engage learners throughout their training journey. These resources include textbooks, digital materials, multimedia presentations, interactive e-learning modules, and more. The plan ensures that these resources align with the learning objectives and provide learners with the necessary support and tools for their vocational development.


In a graphic design training program, the plan may include textbooks that cover the fundamental design principles and techniques. Additionally, it may leverage digital resources such as online tutorials, design software simulations, and video demonstrations. These resources provide learners with multiple avenues to explore and practice design concepts, catering to different learning preferences and fostering active engagement.

Real-world Examples, Case Studies, and Practical Applications

To make the learning content relatable and meaningful, the training plan should integrate real-world examples, case studies, and practical applications. These resources connect theoretical concepts to practical scenarios, enabling learners to understand how their knowledge and skills can be applied in real-life vocational settings.


In a hospitality management training program, the plan may include case studies that present scenarios encountered in hotel operations. Learners can analyse these cases, apply their knowledge of customer service, problem-solving, and operational management to propose appropriate solutions. By engaging with practical examples, learners develop a deeper understanding of the subject matter and enhance their critical thinking and decision-making skills.

Interactive and Engaging Learning Materials

The training plan should incorporate interactive and engaging learning materials to captivate learners’ interest and maintain their engagement. These materials can include gamified quizzes, interactive simulations, virtual reality experiences, or group activities that promote active participation and collaboration.


In an automotive technician training program, the plan may include interactive e-learning modules that simulate diagnostic processes. Learners can navigate through virtual car systems, troubleshoot issues, and make decisions based on the presented scenarios. These interactive learning materials provide an immersive and engaging experience that reinforces knowledge acquisition and skill development.

Accessibility and Adaptability of Resources

The training plan must ensure that the resources used are accessible and adaptable to meet learners’ diverse needs. It considers factors such as language proficiency, technological accessibility, and individual learning preferences to provide an inclusive learning experience.


In a language training program for English as a Second Language (ESL) learners, the plan may include resources that cater to different language proficiency levels. It may incorporate audio materials for listening practice, visual aids for vocabulary building, and interactive language exercises for grammar and speaking practice. These resources accommodate learners with varying levels of language proficiency, allowing them to progress at their own pace.

By using resources that support and engage learners, including diverse learning materials, real-world examples, interactive components, and adaptable resources, a training plan enhances learner engagement, facilitates understanding, and provides the necessary support for successful vocational training.

2.4 Determine learning activities to support and engage learners in each component

To determine learning activities that support and engage learners in each component, educators and Trainers and Assessors consider learners’ needs and goals.

The Introduction component involves icebreakers and pre-assessment quizzes. In the content delivery component, multimedia presentations, case studies, and virtual simulations are used. The application and practice component includes group discussions, hands-on activities, and role-playing. The assessment component utilises quizzes, tests, projects, and peer reviews. The reflection and feedback component involves journaling, feedback surveys, and one-on-one discussions.

By incorporating these activities, designers create engaging and tailored learning experiences for learners.

2.4.1 Enhancing Learner Engagement

When designing a training program, it is crucial to determine learning activities that support and engage learners in each component. By carefully selecting and incorporating appropriate learning activities, trainers can create an engaging and effective learning environment that promotes knowledge retention, skill development, and learner participation.

One of the key considerations when determining learning activities is aligning them with the specific learning outcomes and objectives of each component. By identifying the desired knowledge, skills, and competencies that learners should acquire, trainers can design activities that directly address these outcomes. 

For example, if the objective is to develop practical skills, hands-on activities, simulations, or role-plays can be incorporated.

To cater to diverse learning styles and preferences, a variety of learning activities should be employed. Some learners may benefit from visual aids, such as videos or infographics, while others may prefer interactive activities like group discussions or case studies. Offering a mix of activities allows learners to engage with the content in ways that suit their individual learning preferences, promoting a more inclusive and effective learning experience.

Active learning strategies are highly effective in engaging learners and enhancing their understanding and retention of the material. Incorporating activities that require learners to actively participate, such as problem-solving exercises, group projects, or real-life scenarios, promotes critical thinking and application of knowledge. It fosters a deeper understanding of the subject matter and encourages learners to take ownership of their learning process.

Technology can play a significant role in supporting learner engagement. Utilising online platforms, interactive e-learning modules, or gamified activities can create a dynamic and interactive learning environment. Virtual discussions, online quizzes, or multimedia presentations can enhance learner engagement, provide immediate feedback, and facilitate knowledge application.

In addition to considering the content and delivery method, it is essential to take into account the practicality and feasibility of the learning activities. The availability of resources, time constraints, and the learning environment should all be considered when determining activities. It is important to strike a balance between activities that challenge learners and activities that are achievable within the given context.

In conclusion, determining learning activities that support and engage learners in each component is crucial for creating an effective training program. By aligning activities with learning outcomes, catering to different learning styles, promoting active learning, leveraging technology, and providing regular assessment and feedback, trainers can enhance learner engagement, promote knowledge retention, and facilitate a meaningful and impactful learning experience.

In order to determine learning activities that support and engage learners in each component, an educator or instructional designer carefully analyses the unique needs and goals of the learners. By considering factors such as their prior knowledge, learning styles, and desired outcomes, the educator or designer can tailor activities that facilitate meaningful learning experiences.

Facilitation techniques

Facilitation techniques play a crucial role in supporting and engaging learners while also checking for their understanding. 

These techniques encompass various presentation methods, learning activities, and formative assessment activities. 

By implementing these strategies, instructors can create a dynamic and interactive learning environment. 

Below are some examples of learning activities that can be implemented for each component:

Introduction Component

•Icebreaker activities:
•Engage learners in team-building exercises or games to create a positive and inclusive learning environment.
•Pre-assessment quizzes:
•Administer short quizzes or surveys to assess learners’ prior knowledge and identify knowledge gaps.

Content Delivery Component (presentation)

•Content Delivery Component:
•Multimedia presentations: Utilise interactive videos, slideshows, or audio recordings to present key concepts and information.
•Case studies:
•Present real-life scenarios that relate to the content, encouraging learners to apply their knowledge and problem-solving skills.
•Virtual simulations:
•Offer immersive virtual environments where learners can practice and experiment with concepts in a risk-free setting.

Application and Practice Component (Learning activities)

Group discussions:
Facilitate structured discussions where learners can reflect on the content, share their insights, and collaborate with peers.
•Hands-on activities:
•Provide practical exercises or experiments that allow learners to apply theoretical knowledge and develop practical skills.
•Assign roles or scenarios to learners, enabling them to explore different perspectives and practice real-life situations.

Assessment Component

Quizzes and tests:
Administer formative and summative assessments to gauge learners’ understanding of the content and provide feedback.
•Projects and presentations:
•Assign individual or group projects that require learners to research, analyse, and present their findings on a specific topic.
•Peer reviews:
•Incorporate peer assessment activities where learners evaluate and provide constructive feedback on each other’s work.

Reflection and Feedback Component

Encourage learners to maintain reflective journals, where they can document their thoughts, insights, and personal reflections on the learning process.
•Feedback surveys:
•Conduct anonymous surveys to collect learners’ feedback on the effectiveness of the learning activities, allowing for continuous improvement
•One-on-one discussions:
•Provide opportunities for learners to engage in personalised discussions with instructors or mentors, where they can seek feedback and clarify any questions or concerns.

By implementing a diverse range of learning activities in each component, Trainers and Assessors can create a dynamic and engaging learning experience that caters to the needs and preferences of the learners.

2.5 Identify and evaluate suitability of existing learning resources

When evaluating the suitability of existing learning resources, Trainers and Assessors can follow several steps. They should begin by clearly defining their learning objectives. Next, they can conduct thorough research to discover relevant resources from reputable platforms.

The quality and credibility of the resources can be assessed by considering factors such as authoritativeness, accuracy, and user feedback. Trainers and Assessors should analyse the relevance and appropriateness of the content, ensuring it aligns with their specific learning needs and preferred learning style. Additionally, they should consider the resource’s interactivity and engagement features, such as interactive elements and user-friendly interfaces. Lastly, seeking recommendations from peers and experts in the field can also provide valuable insights. By following these steps, Trainers and Assessors can effectively identify and evaluate learning resources that best suit their learners’ needs.

2.5.1 Identifying and Evaluating the Suitability of Existing Learning Resources

In the era of rapid technological advancements, learners have access to a wide range of educational resources. However, not all learning resources are equally suitable. It is important for Trainers and Assessors to identify and evaluate the appropriateness of existing learning materials to ensure effective learning experiences. 

One important step is to clearly define learning objectives. Trainers and Assessors should identify what they aim to achieve through the resources, whether it involves acquiring knowledge, developing specific skills, or understanding complex concepts. These learning objectives serve as a framework for the evaluation process.

Conduct research

Thorough research is necessary to discover learning resources that align with the defined objectives. Various platforms should be explored , such as:

•Educational websites

Online courses


Video tutorials

Interactive apps


Recommendations from experts and positive reviews from learners in the field can be valuable in this process.

Assess quality and credibility

Assessing the quality and credibility of learning resources involves several factors. Trainers and Assessors should consider the authoritativeness of the resource, examining the credentials, experience, and expertise of the creators.

The accuracy and reliability of the information provided should also be evaluated, ensuring it is up-to-date, supported by evidence, and from reputable sources. The clarity and coherence of the resource’s presentation should be assessed as well, considering its organisation and ability to facilitate understanding and engagement. User reviews and feedback provide additional insights into the resource’s quality.

Determine relevance

The relevance and appropriateness of a learning resource should be analysed in relation to specific learning needs. 

Trainers and Assessors should determine if the content addresses the desired topics, subjects, or skills, and whether it provides sufficient depth and breadth of information. Additionally, the resource should offer practical examples, case studies, or real-world applications to enhance understanding and practical application. 

Compatibility with preferred learning styles, such as visual, auditory, or kinaesthetic, should be considered. Cultural sensitivity is also important, ensuring that the resource respects diverse backgrounds and perspectives while avoiding bias or discriminatory content.

Ensure interactivity and engagement

Interactivity and engagement are crucial aspects of effective learning. Trainers and Assessors should evaluate whether the resource offers interactive features, such as quizzes, exercises, simulations, or hands-on activities, which facilitate active learning and improve comprehension and retention. 

Multimedia integration, such as videos, images, animations, or interactive infographics, can aid in visualising complex concepts. Furthermore, the resource should have a user-friendly interface that enhances the overall learning experience.

Seeking recommendations and advice from peers, educators, or professionals in the field is another valuable step. Their insights and experiences can provide guidance in identifying high-quality resources that align with the defined learning objectives.

In conclusion, identifying and evaluating the suitability of existing learning resources is essential for effective and efficient learning. By clearly defining learning objectives, conducting thorough research, assessing quality and credibility, analysing relevance and appropriateness, considering interactivity and engagement, and seeking peer recommendations and expert advice, Trainers and Assessors can ensure that the resources they choose align with their objectives and provide high-quality educational content. 

This process empowers individuals to make informed decisions, maximise their learning potential, and access resources that enhance their learners’ knowledge, skills, and understanding.

2.6 Estimate duration of training required for each learning component tailored to learner group characteristics

This section discusses the process of estimating training duration for different learning components, considering the characteristics of the learner group.

Factors such as background, experience, learning styles, objectives, and content complexity should be taken into account. Pre-training assessments and individual learning needs help tailor the duration. Flexibility is important to adjust the duration based on learners’ progress. Post-training evaluation and feedback validate the effectiveness of the duration.

By considering these factors, trainers can ensure efficient and effective learning experiences for the learner group.

2.6.1 Estimating Training Duration Based on Learner Group Characteristics

Accurately estimating the required training duration for each learning component is crucial. However, it is equally important to consider the unique characteristics of the learner group. 

Learners possess diverse backgrounds, prior knowledge, learning styles, and abilities, all of which greatly influence the time needed to master specific learning components. Estimating training duration tailored to learner group characteristics enables effective and efficient learning experiences.

Understanding Learner Group Characteristics

By considering both the learners’ background and experience, as well as their dominant learning styles, trainers can estimate the training duration more accurately, ensuring that each learner receives the appropriate amount of time and instructional strategies to achieve the desired learning outcomes.

Background and Experience: 

When estimating training duration, it is crucial to consider the learners’ educational backgrounds, professional experiences, and familiarity with the subject matter.

For example, if a group of learners consists of individuals with a strong foundation in mathematics, they may require less time to understand advanced mathematical concepts compared to learners with limited mathematical background. Similarly, if the learners have prior experience in a specific field, they might understand related concepts more quickly.

By recognising the learners’ background and experience, trainers can gauge the level of prior knowledge and adjust the training duration accordingly.

Learning Styles: 

Identifying the predominant learning styles within the learner group is essential for effective training.


For instance, if a group consists of visual learners, incorporating visual aids such as diagrams, charts, and videos can enhance their understanding and retention of the material. On the other hand, auditory learners may benefit from lectures, discussions, or audio-based resources.

By understanding the learners’ preferred learning styles, trainers can tailor the training duration by incorporating appropriate instructional strategies that align with each style. This approach promotes engagement and maximises the effectiveness of the learning experience.

Furthermore, when identifying the learning styles within the group, trainers might find that a significant portion of the learners are visual learners. To cater to their preferred learning style, trainers could incorporate visual examples, coding demonstrations, and interactive coding exercises with visual feedback. This approach ensures that visual learners can understand the programming concepts effectively and engage with the training materials.

Assessing Learning Objectives and Complexity

When assessing learning objectives and complexity, trainers should clearly define the desired learning outcomes and consider the expected level of proficiency or mastery. Additionally, evaluating the complexity of the content helps determine the appropriate training duration. By considering these factors, trainers can allocate the necessary time and resources to ensure that learners have ample opportunities to achieve the desired learning outcomes and effectively engage with the training materials.

Learning Objectives: 

One important aspect of estimating the training duration is to clearly define the learning objectives for each component. The learning objectives outline what knowledge, skills, or competencies learners are expected to acquire by the end of the training. Defining specific and measurable learning objectives helps in determining the appropriate training duration.


For instance, if the learning objective is to acquire a basic understanding of a new software application, the training duration may be relatively shorter compared to a learning objective that requires learners to demonstrate advanced proficiency in using the software’s advanced features.

By clearly defining the desired level of proficiency or mastery, trainers can allocate the necessary time for learners to achieve the stated learning objectives.

Complexity of the Content:

Another crucial factor to consider when estimating the training duration is the complexity and difficulty level of each learning component. Some components may involve intricate concepts, advanced theories, or complex skills that require more time and effort to understand and apply effectively.

For example, if the training program includes a module on advanced statistical analysis, learners with a limited background in statistics may require additional time to understand the underlying principles, formulas, and techniques. In contrast, a module on basic arithmetic operations may be less complex and can be covered within a shorter duration.

By evaluating the complexity of the content, trainers can determine the appropriate training duration needed for learners to fully comprehend and apply the concepts. This evaluation ensures that learners have sufficient time to engage with the content, ask questions, practice, and internalise the knowledge or skills being taught.

Conducting a Pre-Training Assessment

Conducting a pre-training assessment involves administering tests to evaluate learners’ existing knowledge and skills. This allows trainers to identify knowledge gaps and areas that require additional attention during the training. Additionally, recognising individual learning needs helps in providing personalised support and adjusting the training duration accordingly. By conducting a thorough pre-training assessment, trainers can tailor the training to meet the specific needs of the learner group, optimising the overall learning experience.

Pre-Assessment Tests: 

One essential step in estimating the training duration is conducting pre-assessment tests before the actual training begins. Pre-assessments are designed to evaluate the learners’ existing knowledge, skills, and competencies related to the training topic. These tests provide valuable insights into the learners’ baseline understanding and proficiency levels.

By administering pre-assessment tests, trainers can identify any knowledge gaps or areas where learners may already have a solid foundation. This information helps in tailoring the training content and duration to meet the specific needs of the learners. 

For example, if the pre-assessment reveals that a significant portion of the group already possesses a good understanding of certain concepts, trainers can allocate less time to those areas and focus more on topics where learners require additional support.

Individual Learning Needs:

Recognising and addressing the individual learning needs within the learner group is crucial for estimating the training duration accurately. Each learner may have unique requirements, preferences, or challenges that impact their learning process.

By understanding individual learning needs, trainers can adjust the training duration accordingly. 


For instance, some learners may require extra support or personalised instruction due to their specific learning styles, language proficiency, or cognitive abilities. Allocating additional time for individualised instruction or providing supplementary resources can help meet these learners’ needs and enhance their learning experience.

2.6.2 Adjusting Training Duration

Moreover, identifying individual learning needs helps trainers provide targeted interventions or modifications to the training approach, ensuring that all learners can actively engage with the content and make progress. This individualisation of instruction may influence the overall training duration, as learners with different needs may require varying amounts of time to achieve the desired learning outcomes.

Adjusting the training duration involves allocating appropriate time for each learning component based on complexity and learning objectives. It also requires remaining flexible and adaptable, considering the progress and needs of the learner group. By monitoring learner comprehension and adjusting the pace of training as necessary, trainers can create an effective and efficient learning experience that meets the specific requirements of the learners.

Time Allocation: 

When estimating the training duration, it is essential to allocate sufficient time for each learning component. Consider factors such as the complexity of the content, the stated learning objectives, and the characteristics of the learner group.

Components that involve complex concepts, advanced skills, or extensive practical applications may require more time for learners to fully understand and internalise. On the other hand, components that are relatively straightforward or build upon existing knowledge may require less time.

By carefully assessing the requirements of each learning component and considering the capabilities and needs of the learner group, trainers can allocate the appropriate amount of time to ensure comprehensive coverage of the content while maintaining a manageable pace.

Flexibility and Adaptability: 

While a predefined training duration serves as a guideline, it is crucial to remain flexible and adaptable throughout the training process. Monitor the progress and comprehension of the learners and be prepared to adjust the training duration as needed.

Some learners may understand the material quickly and may be ready to move on to the next component sooner than anticipated. On the other hand, some learners may require more time and support to fully understand and apply the concepts being taught.

Trainers should create an environment that encourages open communication and feedback. Regularly assess the learners’ comprehension and engagement levels, and be prepared to modify the training duration to accommodate their needs. This flexibility ensures that learners have sufficient time to internalise the content and make meaningful progress.

Additionally, consider incorporating formative assessments or checkpoints throughout the training to evaluate the learners’ understanding and adjust the training duration accordingly.

These assessments can help identify areas where additional time or reinforcement is required, enabling trainers to tailor the training experience for optimal learning outcomes.

Estimating the duration of training tailored to learner group characteristics is essential for designing effective and efficient learning experiences. By understanding the learner group’s characteristics, assessing learning objectives and content complexity, conducting pre-training assessments, adjusting training duration, and seeking post-training evaluation and feedback, trainers can ensure that the allocated time aligns with the learners’ needs and abilities. This approach promotes better engagement, comprehension, and mastery of the learning components, ultimately leading to successful learning outcomes.

2.7 Document overall plan and structure according to legislative and regulatory requirements, organisational procedures, and sustainability considerations

When documenting an overall plan and structure, it is crucial to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements, follow organisational procedures, and consider sustainability principles. This ensures legal compliance, operational efficiency, and environmental responsibility.

The plan should align with relevant laws and regulations, adhere to organisational protocols, and incorporate sustainable practices such as resource efficiency and waste reduction. By considering these factors, organisations can create a comprehensive plan that meets legal obligations, optimises operations, and promotes sustainability.

When developing an overall plan and structure, it is crucial to ensure alignment with legislative and regulatory requirements, organisational procedures, and sustainability considerations. 

By documenting a comprehensive plan that incorporates these factors, organisations can demonstrate compliance, enhance operational efficiency, and promote sustainability practices.

Legislative and Regulatory Requirements

The plan should be developed in accordance with these requirements to ensure legal compliance. This may involve considering aspects such as health and safety regulations, data protection laws, licensing requirements, and any specific industry guidelines.

In order to ensure legal compliance, trainers must carefully research and understand the legislative and regulatory requirements that apply to their industry or field. This involves identifying and analysing the laws, regulations, and standards that govern their operations.

Thorough research is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the specific requirements that must be met. This includes identifying applicable laws, regulations, and standards related to areas such as health and safety, data protection, licensing, and industry-specific guidelines.

Health and Safety Regulations

Trainers need to be aware of health and safety regulations that pertain to their operations. This includes understanding and implementing measures to ensure the safety and well-being of employees, customers, and other stakeholders. Compliance with health and safety regulations may involve conducting risk assessments, implementing safety protocols, providing necessary training, and maintaining appropriate records.

Data Protection Laws

With the increasing importance of data privacy, Trainers must comply with data protection laws and regulations. This includes ensuring the proper collection, storage, and handling of personal and sensitive data. Organisations may need to implement data protection policies, obtain consent for data processing, establish data breach response procedures, and appoint a data protection officer, depending on the applicable laws and regulations.

Licensing Requirements

Certain industries may have specific licensing or certification requirements that organisations must meet to operate legally. This may include obtaining licenses, permits, or

certifications from relevant regulatory bodies. Trainers should research and understand the specific licensing requirements applicable to the industry and ensure compliance to avoid any legal repercussions.

Industry Guidelines

Many industries have established guidelines or best practices that organisations should follow. These guidelines may be developed by industry associations, professional bodies, or regulatory agencies. Adhering to industry guidelines can help ensure the quality, safety, and ethical standards expected within the industry.

By thoroughly researching and understanding the legislative and regulatory requirements that apply to their operations, trainers can develop plans and procedures that align with these requirements. This helps ensure legal compliance, mitigate risks, and maintain a positive reputation. Regular monitoring and review of the legislative landscape is also crucial, as laws and regulations may change over time, requiring organisations to adapt and update their practices accordingly.

Organisational Procedures

When documenting a plan, it is important to adhere to the organisational procedures established within the organisation. These procedures include protocols, guidelines, and frameworks that have been put in place to govern various aspects of the RTO’s operations.

By aligning with organisational procedures, the plan becomes consistent with existing processes and practices. Following organisational procedures offers several benefits:


·Consistency promotes clarity, reduces confusion, and facilitates a unified approach within the organisation.


·This promotes efficiency as it eliminates the need to ‘reinvent the wheel’ and allows for the seamless integration of the plan into the organisation’s operations.


·By following these procedures, the plan can ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and industry standards.

•Communication and Collaboration

·By aligning with these procedures, the plan can facilitate effective communication and collaboration among team members, departments, and stakeholders.

•Documentation and Reporting

·By following these procedures, the plan can ensure that the necessary documentation is created, maintained, and reported in the prescribed format, promoting accountability and transparency.

By considering and aligning with organisational procedures, the plan can be seamlessly integrated into the existing framework of the organisation. This not only promotes efficiency and consistency but also enhances the plan’s effectiveness and its ability to achieve the desired outcomes within the organisational context.

A training plan offers a concise summary of a comprehensive training program. It includes an introduction that outlines the program overview, legislative requirements, and sustainability commitment. The training program details cover essential information such as program name, code, qualification level, training package, duration, delivery modes, and start/end dates. The legislative and regulatory section identifies relevant regulations, explains program alignment, and addresses necessary permissions or certifications.

Organisational procedures highlight policies, quality assurance, assessment, recognition of prior learning, and learner support. The training delivery and assessment strategies discuss methods, resources, trainers’ qualifications, and flexibility for diverse learners. Sustainability considerations emphasise integrating sustainable practices, minimising environmental impact, and supporting learners in sustainable work practices. The evaluation and continuous improvement section focuses on monitoring, feedback, improvement areas, and professional development. Below is an example:

1. IntroductionPurpose of the training plan
Overview of the vocational training program
Identification of relevant legislative and regulatory requirements
Explanation of the organisation’s commitment to sustainability
2. Training Program DetailsProgram name, code, and qualification level (if applicable)
Training package or units of competency being delivered
Duration of the training program
Training delivery modes (e.g., face-to-face, online, blended)
Intended start and end dates of the program
3. Legislative and Regulatory RequirementsIdentification and description of applicable legislation, regulations, and standards related to the vocational training program
Explanation of how the program aligns with these requirements
Documentation of any necessary permissions or certifications required for program delivery
4. Organisational ProceduresOverview of the organisation’s policies and procedures related to vocational training
Compliance with quality assurance processes and standards
Assessment and validation processes
Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and credit transfer policies
Guidelines for learner support and welfare
5. Training Delivery andDescription of the training delivery methods, resources, and materials to be used
Assessment StrategiesExplanation of assessment methods and tools
Information on trainers and assessors, including their qualifications and industry experience
Consideration of flexible delivery options to cater to diverse learner needs
6. Sustainability ConsiderationsIncorporation of sustainable practices and principles within the training program
Strategies to minimise environmental impact
Inclusion of sustainability-related content in the training curriculum
Support for learners to develop sustainable work practices
7. Evaluation and ContinuousMethods for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the training program
ImprovementCollection and analysis of feedback from learners, trainers, and industry stakeholders
Processes for identifying areas of improvement and implementing necessary changes
Commitment to ongoing professional development for trainers and assessors
8. ConclusionSummary of the training plan

2.7.2 Sustainability matters to consider when designing and developing plans for vocational training (KE14

Integrating sustainability considerations into the plan is crucial for organisations to operate responsibly and reduce their environmental impact. This involves considering sustainable practices, resource efficiency, waste reduction, and social responsibility. 

The plan should address sustainability goals and incorporate strategies such as adopting renewable energy sources, implementing recycling and waste management programs, reducing carbon emissions, and promoting community engagement. 

Here are some sustainability matters to consider during the design and development phase:

•Green Skills Development:
•Include content and training activities that promote the development of green skills. These skills focus on sustainable practices, renewable energy, energy efficiency, waste management, and environmental conservation.

By equipping learners with green skills, vocational training programs can contribute to a workforce that is prepared for the growing demand for sustainable practices in various industries.

Resource Efficiency:
•Promote resource-efficient practices throughout the training program. This can include incorporating modules on sustainable resource management, encouraging the use of digital resources and online platforms to minimise paper usage, and emphasising the importance of energy and water conservation.

By instilling resource-efficient habits, learners can become advocates for sustainable practices in their future workplaces.

Social Responsibility and Ethics:
•ntegrate modules on social responsibility and ethical considerations within the training program. This can involve exploring topics such as fair trade, diversity and inclusion, responsible supply chain management, and ethical decision-making.

By fostering an understanding of social responsibility, vocational training programs can prepare learners to make sustainable and ethical choices in their careers.

Practical Application of Sustainability Principles:
•Provide opportunities for learners to apply sustainability principles in practical ways. This can be achieved through hands-on projects, case studies, and fieldwork that involve identifying and implementing sustainable solutions.

By actively engaging learners in real-world sustainability challenges, vocational training programs can enhance their problem-solving skills and encourage the application of sustainable practices in their future workplaces.

Collaboration and Partnerships:
•Foster collaboration with sustainable organisations, industry leaders, and community stakeholders. This can involve inviting guest speakers from sustainable enterprises, organising site visits to sustainable businesses, and establishing partnerships for internships or practical training opportunities.

By connecting learners with sustainable practices and professionals, vocational training programs can provide valuable networking opportunities and inspire a mindset of sustainability in learners.